We describe and analyze a bistable reaction-diffusion (RD) model for two interconverting chemical species that exhibits a phenomenon of of a living eukaryotic cell, such as a white-blood cell, amoeba, or yeast in response to a signal. a cell with some (e.g. Rac, Cdc42) becoming strongly activated at one end (to form the front of the cell [15, 23]) whereas others (such as RhoA) dominate at the opposite end (to form the rear [42]). In [21], we investigated a minimal system for the initial symmetry breaking, consisting of a single active-inactive pair of GTPases. From a mathematical perspective, this yields an opportunity for deeper analysis. It also clarifies minimal necessary conditions for symmetry breaking. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mathematical properties of this model and its wave-pinning behaviour. The model is based on a caricature of Rho proteins: (1) The protein has an active (GTP-bound) and an BRIP1 inactive (GDP-bound) form. (2) The active forms are only found on the cell membrane; those in the fluid interior of the cell (cytosol) are inactive. (3) There is a 100-fold difference between rates of diffusion of cytosolic vs membrane bound proteins [27]. (4) Continual exchange of active and inactive forms (mediated by GEFs and GAPs) and unbinding from the cell membrane (aided by GDP dissociation inhibitors, GDIs) is essential for polarization [10]. Because the cell edge is thin, this exchange is rapid and not diffusion limited. (5) On the time-scale of polarization (minutes), there is little or no protein synthesis in the cell (timescale of hours), so that the total amount of the given protein is roughly constant. (6) Feedback from an active form to further activation are common, e.g. see [10]. A schematic diagram of our model is given in Fig. 2.1, but many other competing mechanisms are likely at play in real cells. Fig. 2.1 (a) Our 1D model represents a strip across a cell diameter (L 10m), shown top-down and side view. (b) Side view of a cell (top) showing membrane (shaded) and cytosol (white) and a cell fragment (bottom) 0.1m thick, … We formulate the model (Section 2), and apply matched asymptotics (Section 3) to show how the wave speed, shape and stall positions are affected by the parameters. In Section 4, we describe the bifurcation structures for various reaction kinetics and discuss biological implications in the Discussion. 2. Model formulation Consider a one dimensional domain = {: 0 includes both membrane and cytosol. Denote by and time and as residing in the same 1D domain . The concentrations and satisfy the following equations to ? diffuses much more slowly than the cytosolic species > 0, 0 are constants. The activation of Rho proteins by GEFs (first term, to its own GEF-mediated activation rate (+ arrow, Fig 2.1b), modeled as a Hill function [22, 37]. In more detailed models, we based the feedback on experimental evidence, e.g. for neutrophils [18, 3, 12]. For the rate of inactivation by GAPs (second term, and , with fixed over a suitable range, has three roots whereas over a range of values. Much of the BMS-536924 analysis to follow applies not only to the specific form of and the BMS-536924 reaction rate with , both of which are dictated by the form of the reaction term (see (2.3)). Take the domain length to be the relevant length scale. Equations (2.1) can be rescaled using are dimensionless variables. The scaling in time BMS-536924 is chosen so that we obtain a distinguished limit appropriate for the analysis of wave-pinning (see next Section). We define: is affected by the time the inactive Rho GTPases spent in the cytosol and depends BMS-536924 on the presence of Rho GDI. (Inhibiting GDI can reduce that time, thus reducing the diffusion coefficient of the inactive forms, which is discussed later on.) For typical normal conditions, the diffusion coefficients are = 0.1 m2s?1 and = 10 m2s?1 Given ? = 𝒪(1) with respect to . This assumption may be written as 10m, reaction timescale 1 s?1. The dimensionless constants are then 0.03 and 0.1. One time unit in the dimensionless system is approximately 30 = 1for the dimensionless reaction term, we obtain: 1. The (dimensionless) total amount of protein satisfies = fixed within the bistable range, < = < > 0 for.